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CARL BERNOFSKY
Personal:

Born November 22, 1933, Brooklyn, New York
Married to Shirley Goodman, April 27, 1957
Children: Susan, born July 20, 1966; Lauren, born September 27, 1967

Education:

B.S., Biology, 1955,  Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York
Graduate Studies, Biochemistry, 1956, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
Ph.D., Biochemistry, 1963, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

Professional Experience:

Research Professor of Biochemistry, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1983-1995
Research Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1980-1983
Visiting Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1975-1980

Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota, 1973-1975
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, 1967-1973
Consultant, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, 1967-1974

Postdoctoral Fellow, Case-Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1962-1967

Research Assistant, American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, 1956-1958

Major Research Interests:

Mechanisms of inflammatory tissue damage; Spin trapping of biologically important free radicals; Human cell models for early detection of toxic substances; Tumor-specific nucleases; Pyridine nucleotide chemistry and metabolism.

Teaching Specialties:

Course: Energy Transduction Processes (16 years).

Invited lecturer: Free Radicals and Cellular Injury.

Publications:

Author or coauthor of approximately 60 publications of original scientific work.

Patent:

U.S. Patent 5,804,443, "Human Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line"

Grants:

Recipient of grant awards from the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, American Cancer Institute, American Institute for Cancer Research, and others.

Professional Societies:

American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; International EPR Society; New York Academy of Sciences; American Chemical Society; Oxygen Society; American Association for the Advancement of Science
 



 
PUBLICATIONS

  1. J.B. Fox, Jr., T. Strehler, C. Bernofsky, and B.S. Schweigert, Biochemistry of Myoglobin.  Production and Identification of a Green Pigment Formed During Irradiation of Meat Extracts, J. Agr. Food Chem., 6, 692-696 (1958).
  2. C. Bernofsky, J.B. Fox, Jr., and B.S. Schweigert, Biochemistry of Myoglobin, VI. The Effects of Low Dosage Gamma Irradiation on Beef Myoglobin, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 80, 9-21 (1959).
  3. C. Bernofsky, J.B. Fox, Jr., and B.S. Schweigert, Biochemistry of Myoglobin, VII. The Effects of Cooking on Myoglobin in Beef Muscle, Food Res., 24, 339-343 (1959).
  4. C. Bernofsky and M.F. Utter, Mitochondrial Isocitrate Dehydrogenases from Yeast, J. Biol. Chem., 241, 5461-5466 (1966).
  5. C. Bernofsky and R.C. Mills, Diaphorases from Aerobacter aerogenes, J. Bacteriol., 92, 1404-1414 (1966).
  6. C. Bernofsky, and M.F. Utter, Secondary Activation Effects of Mitochondrial Isocitrate Dehydrogenases from Yeast, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 132, 244-255 (1967).
  7. M.F. Utter, E.A. Duell, and C. Bernofsky, Alterations in the Respiratory Enzymes of the Mitochondria of Growing and Resting Yeast, in A.K. Mills, ed., Aspects of Yeast Metabolism, F.A. Davis Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1968, pp. 197-212.
  8. C. Bernofsky and M.F. Utter, Interconversions of Mitochondrial Pyridine Nucleotides, Science, 159, 1362-1363 (1968).
  9. C. Bernofsky, Synthesis of Pyridine Nucleotides in Yeast, FEBS Lett., 4, 167-169 (1969).
  10. C. Bernofsky and K.M. Royal, Glutathione:  A Source of Interference in Pyridine Nucleotide Determinations by a Cycling Procedure, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 215, 210-213 (1970).
  11. M.M. Griffiths and C. Bernofsky, Activation of Mitochondrial DPN Kinase from Yeast, FEBS Lett., 10, 97-100 (1970).
  12. J.I. Wenger and C. Bernofsky, Mitochondrial Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 227, 479-490 (1971).
  13. C. Bernofsky and M. Pankow, Role of Dehydrogenase Binding in Protection of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide from Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 242, 437-440 (1971).
  14. M.M. Griffiths and C. Bernofsky, Purification and Properties of Reduced Diphosphopyridine Nucleotide Kinase from Yeast Mitochondria, J. Biol. Chem., 247, 1473-1478 (1972).
  15. C. Bernofsky and M. Pankow, Protein Binding of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Regulation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Glycohydrolase Activity in Homogenates of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 156, 143-153 (1973).
  16. C. Bernofsky and M. Swan, An Improved Cycling Assay for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Anal. Biochem., 53, 452-458 (1973).
  17. E.L. Jacobson, M.K. Jacobson, and C. Bernofsky, Evidence Against the Natural Occurrence of Alpha-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide in Azotobacter vinelandii, J. Biol. Chem., 248, 7891-7897 (1973).
  18. M.K. Jacobson and C. Bernofsky, Mitochondrial Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 350, 277-291 (1974).
  19. E.L. Jacobson, M.K. Jacobson, and C. Bernofsky, NAD Levels in 3T3 Cells During Exponential Growth and Density-dependent Inhibition of Growth, FEBS Lett., 47, 23-25 (1974).
  20. C. Bernofsky, Isolation and Identification of 2-Phosphoadenosine Diphosphate, an Alkali Degradation Product of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 166, 645-650 (1975).
  21. C. Bernofsky and W.J. Gallagher, Liquid Chromatography of Pyridine Nucleotides and Related Compounds and Isolation of Several Analogs of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate, Anal. Biochem., 67, 611-624 (1975).
  22. S.C.-S. Chang and C. Bernofsky, Correlation between DNA Synthesis and Intracellular NAD in Cultured Human Leukemic Lymphocytes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 64, 539-545 (1975).
  23. C. Bernofsky, Binding of Purine Nucleotides to Ammonium Formate during Gel Filtration on Sephadex G-10, Anal. Biochem., 68, 311-315 (1975).
  24. C. Bernofsky, Evidence for the Multiplicity of Products from Acid-Treated Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH), Physiol. Chem. Phys., 10, 193-199 (1978).
  25. C. Bernofsky, Chromatographic Differentiation of Nicotinamide Riboside and 1-Methylnicotinamide, Anal. Biochem., 93, 384-385 (1979).
  26. C. Bernofsky, New Synthesis of the 4- and 6-Pyridones of 1-Methylnicotinamide and 1-Methylnicotinic Acid (Trigonelline), Anal. Biochem., 96, 189-200 (1979).
  27. W.H. Campbell and C. Bernofsky, Mitochondrial Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Molec. Cell. Biochem., 25, 33-42, (1979).
  28. C. Bernofsky, Vitamin Therapy for Infarction (Letter), Am. J. Cardiol., 44, 581 (1979).
  29. C. Bernofsky, Isolation and Analysis of Pyridine Nucleotides and Related Compounds by Liquid Chromatography, Methods Enzymol., 66, 23-39 (1980).
  30. C. Bernofsky, Preparation of Alpha-NADP+, Methods Enzymol., 66, 87-90 (1980).
  31. C. Bernofsky, Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP+), Methods Enzymol., 66, 105-112 (1980).
  32. C. Bernofsky, Preparation of 2P-ADP, Methods Enzymol., 66, 112-119 (1980).
  33. C. Bernofsky, Physiologic Aspects of Pyridine Nucleotide Regulation in Mammals, Molec. Cell. Biochem., 33, 135-143, (1980).
  34. C. Bernofsky and W.J. Gallagher, Nonenzymic Hydrogen Transfer between Reduced and Oxidized Pyridine Nucleotides, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 659, 1-6, (1981).
  35. C. Bernofsky, Chromatographic Stability of Acid-Modified Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH), Physiol. Chem. Phys., 13, 3-10 (1981).
  36. E.E. Boh, W.H. Baricos, C. Bernofsky, and R.H. Steele, Mitochondrial Chemiluminescence Elicited by Acetaldehyde, J. Bioenerget. Biomemb., 14, 115-133 (1982).
  37. C. Bernofsky, Dowex 1-Induced Reactions of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH), Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 714, 7-13, (1982).
  38. C. Bernofsky and S.-Y.C. Wanda, Formation of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Peroxide, J. Biol. Chem., 257, 6809-6817 (1982).
  39. C. Bernofsky and S.-Y.C. Wanda, Inhibition of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Peroxide Formation by Superoxide Dismutase, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 107, 1453-1460 (1982).
  40. C. Bernofsky and S.-Y.C. Wanda, Evidence that a Formic Ester is an Early Intermediate in the Periodate Oxidation of ±D-Ribose 5-Phosphate, Carbohydr. Res., 108, 302-306 (1982).
  41. C. Bernofsky and S.-Y.C. Wanda, Reduction of Cytochrome c by Hydrogen Peroxide and Its Inhibition by Superoxide Dismutase, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 111, 231-238 (1983).
  42. C. Bernofsky and D.G. Amamoo, ADP-Ribosylation of Isolated Rat Islets of Langerhans, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 118, 663-668 (1984).
  43. C. Bernofsky and S.W. O'Dea, Nucleotide Modification, a Radical Mechanism of Oxidative Toxicity, Free Radical Res. Commun., 2, 129-136 (1986).
  44. C. Bernofsky, The Nature and Biochemical Significance of Compounds Derived from Pyridine Nucleotides, Coenzymes and Cofactors, Vol. 2B (Dolphin, D., Poulson, R., and Avramovic, O., eds.) John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987, pp. 105-172.
  45. C. Bernofsky, S.L. Strauss, and O. Hinojosa, Binding of Hypochlorite-Modified Adenosine 5-Monophosphate (AMP) to Protein and Nucleic Acid and Its Possible Role in Cytotoxicity, Biochem. Arch., 3, 95-101 (1987).
  46. C. Bernofsky, M. Sono, S.W. O'Dea, and E.Y. Olavesen, Isolation and Some Properties of a Free Radical Hypochlorite-Oxidation Product of Adenosine 5-Monophosphate (AMP), Biochem. Arch., 3, 147-155 (1987).
  47. C. Bernofsky and S.L. Strauss, Hypochlorite-Mediated Binding of Adenosine 5-Monophosphate (AMP) to Nucleic Acid and Its Possible Role in Carcinogenesis, Biochem. Arch., 3, 431-435 (1987).
  48. C. Bernofsky, E.Y. Olavesen, C.C. Felix, and B. Kalyanaraman, Evidence for a Hydroperoxyl Radical from Hypochlorite-Modified Adenosine 5-Monophosphate (AMP), Biochem. Arch., 4, 103-107 (1988).
  49. C. Bernofsky and S.L. Strauss, Evidence for the Formation of Hypochlorite-Modified Adenosine by Activated Guinea Pig Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes, Biochem. Arch., 4, 349-355 (1988).
  50. C. Bernofsky and S.L. Strauss, Evidence that Incorporation of Hypochlorite-Modified Adenosine into Acid-Insoluble Products is not the Result of Poly(ADP-Ribose) or DNA Synthesis in Activated Guinea Pig Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes, Biochem. Arch., 5, 11-18 (1989).
  51. C. Bernofsky and S.L. Strauss, Oxygen Requirement for the Incorporation of Hypochlorite-Modified Adenosine into Acid-Insoluble Products by Activated Guinea Pig Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes, Biochem. Arch., 5, 105-111 (1989).
  52. C. Bernofsky, B.M.R. Bandara, and O. Hinojosa, Spin-Trapping the Adenosine Free Radical, Biochem. Arch., 5, 223-228 (1989).
  53. C. Bernofsky, B.M.R. Bandara, and O. Hinojosa, Electron Spin Resonance Studies of the Reaction of Hypochlorite with 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline-N-Oxide, Free Radical Biol. Med., 8, 231-239 (1990).
  54. B.M.R. Bandara and C. Bernofsky, Convenient Regioselective Formation of 2-O-Tosyladenosine, Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 9, 189-195 (1990).
  55. C. Bernofsky, B.M.R. Bandara, O. Hinojosa, and S.L. Strauss, Hypochlorite-Modified Adenine Nucleotides: Structure, Spin-Trapping, and Formation by Activated Guinea Pig Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes, Free Radical Res. Commun., 9, 303-315 (1990).
  56. C. Bernofsky, Nucleotide Chloramines and Neutrophil-Mediated Cytotoxicity, FASEB J., 5, 295-300 (1991).
  57. B.M.R. Bandara, O. Hinojosa, and C. Bernofsky, The Reaction of 5,5-Dimethyl-l-Pyrroline-l-Oxide with Hypochlorite-Treated Ammonia: The Structure of a Novel N-Chloroimine Nitroxyl Radical, J. Org. Chem., 57, 2652-2657 (1992).
  58. C. Bernofsky and Y. Tang, Latency of Adenosine 5-Triphosphate in MC-1010 Cells, Biochem. Arch., 9, 51-64 (1993).
  59. B.M.R. Bandara, O. Hinojosa, and C. Bernofsky, Mechanistic Studies by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on the Formation of 2-(N-Chloroimino)-5,5-Dimethylpyrrolidine-1-Oxyl Radical from 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline 1-Oxide and Hypochlorite-Treated Ammonia, J. Org. Chem., 59, 1642-1654 (1994).
  60. C. Bernofsky and B.M.R. Bandara, Spin Trapping Endogenous Radicals in MC-1010 Cells:  Evidence for Hydroxyl Radical and Carbon-centered Ascorbyl Radical Adducts, Molec. Cell. Biochem., 148, 155-164 (1995).
  61. B.M.R. Bandara, O. Hinojosa, W. Zhao, and C. Bernofsky, Formation of 5,5-Dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone-1-oxyl (DMPOX) During the Spin Trapping of Activated Human Neutrophils with 5,5-Dimethylpyrroline 1-oxide (DMPO) (in preparation).
  62. Y. Tang, W. Zhao, and C. Bernofsky, Characterization of ATPase Associated with DNA Polymerase and 3 to 5-Exonuclease Activity in Perchloric Acid Extracts of MC-1010 Cells (in preparation).



 
WORK IN PROGRESS
(ending April 21, 1995)
  1. B.M.R. Bandara and C. Bernofsky, 15N Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Ammonia Chloramines.
  2. B.M.R. Bandara, O. Hinojosa, and C. Bernofsky, 2-Amino-5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline 1-Oxide: A Probe for Hypochlorous Acid in Human Neutrophils.
  3. C. Bernofsky, Y. Tang, and W. Zhao, Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Alterations of Adenine Nucleotides in MC-1010 Cells.
  4. C. Bernofsky, R.H Steele, B.M.R. Bandara, A.J. Benesi, A.R. Garber, and H.J. Cohen, Synthesis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of [N6-15N]Adenosine 5-Monophosphate and [N6-15N]N6-Hydroxyadenosine 5-Monophosphate.

KATRINA ADDENDUM

The flooding of Bernofsky's home by Hurricane Katrina, which struck New Orleans on August 29, 2005, completely destroyed the stored research notebooks and exhibits needed for manuscripts then in preparation, as well as the records of laboratory observations that were to be the subjects of future research projects.  An account of how the state handled damage to other physical property can be seen here.
 



 
FUNDING HISTORY

 

   Dates   
Source
Title
  Total Funds  
 Apr 1995 
to
Mar 1997
Air Force Office of Scientific Research Radical Intermedidates of Haloacetic Acids $250,876(1)
May 1994 Dr. and Mrs. Bernofsky Leukemia Research Fund 3,000
Jan 1993
to
Feb 1994
Tulane Medical Center Modeling of Lupus Antigens 14,492
Jun 1992
to
Dec 1994
Louisiana Board of Regents (LEQSF) Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrometer 250,000
Mar 1993
to
Mar 1994
National Science Foundation Renovation of Shared Research Laboratories 48,594(2)
Aug 1990
to
Jul 1994
National Science Foundation Pyridine Nucleotide-Linked Reduction of Nitroxides 268,000
Jun 1990
to
Jul 1994
Defense Nuclear Agency (DoD) Biological Indicators of Toxic Stress 366,917(3)
Aug 1989
to
Jun 1991
Air Force Office of Scientific Research Free Radicals of Biochemical Importance 79,921
Jun 1987
to
Jun 1988
National Institutes of Health High-Pressure Liquid Chromatograph 14,725
Jul 1986
to
Jun 1989
National Institutes of Health Mechanisms of Oxidative Toxicity 224,518
Jul 1984
to
Dec 1986
American Cancer Society NADH Peroxide and Carcinogenesis 110,000
May 1984
to
Dec 1986
American Institute for Cancer Research Vitamin Deficiency-Induced Cachexia in Cancer 98,299
Jul 1983
to
Jul 1984
Cancer Crusaders Polarographic Detection of Free Radicals 4,000
Jan 1983
to
Dec 1983
Cancer Association of Greater New Orleans Detoxification of Environmental Carcinogens 14,713
Jan 1983
to
Jun 1985
National Science Foundation Secondary Acid Modification Products of NADH 89,374
Jun 1981
to
Jun 1983
Elizabeth W. Hill Foundation Role of Vitamins in Heart Disease 15,000
Jul 1981
to
Jun 1982
Ladies Leukemia League Regulation of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Leukemia 5,000
Aug 1979
to
Jul 1982
National Institutes of Health Pyridine Nucleotides and Ischemic Heart Disease 139,826
Aug 1978
to
Jan 1981
National Science Foundation Interconversions of Mitochondrial Pyridine Nucleotides 62,000
Jan 1978
to
Sep 1979
Cancer Association of Greater New Orleans Identity of a New Pyridine Nucleotide in Leukemic Leukocytes 9,390
Jan 1976
to
Jan 1977
Cancer Association of Greater New Orleans Regulation of Pyridine Nucleotides in Cultured Human Lymphocytes 9,004
Mar 1974
to
Aug 1976
National Science Foundation Interconversions of Mitochondrial Pyridine Nucleotides 45,300(4)
Jun 1973
to
Jun 1976
National Institutes of Health Role of Pyridine Nucleotides in Human Leukemia 125,520(5)
Apr 1971
to
Dec 1973
National Science Foundation Interconversions of Mitochondrial Pyridine Nucleotides 34,000
 

Footnotes:

1.  Later adjusted to $249,082.  Grant returned to Air Force by Tulane on December 15, 1995.

2.  One of six contributors from Department of Biochemistry; total funds: $291,566.

3.  Includes $122,306 in indirect funds from DoD block grant to Tulane.

4.  Grant transferred to Tulane in 1975 and extended one additional year.

5.  Idem.
 

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